Vesicles function to repair cells after a heart attack

Scientists at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have uncovered possible mechanisms for healing power and vesicle function. The team demonstrated this ability by not only resuscitating cells after a heart attack, but also able to keep them functional in the absence of oxygen during the illness. They demonstrated this functionality in human tissue using an organ-on-a-chip system with embedded sensors that continuously tracked such tissue contractions.

Repair ischemic stroke through vesicle function


The team also showed that these intercellular travelers may be derived from endothelial cells, which line the surface of blood vessels and are easier to care for than stem cells. The technology used is so advanced that scientists can use it to develop drugs. In this study, researchers mimicked a heart disease using tissue on a chip containing human cells. In addition, a novel therapeutic approach can be developed to treat heart disease. Heart attacks, or myocardial infarctions, occur when blood flow to the heart is blocked. Of course, the best way to treat a heart attack is to restore blood flow. However, this process can actually cause more damage to the cells in the heart. Such ischemic reperfusion or reoxygenation occurs when the blood supply returns to the tissues after a period of lack of oxygen.

heart rate measurement with a digital device and a sensor on the index finger as a preventive measure in the case of heart failure

The cellular response to this involves multiple mechanisms such as calcium and proton overload, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and more. These complex processes present a challenge to the development of effective therapies that can address each of these problems. In this case, the vesicle function originating from the endothelium can come into play. Because these vesicles originate from vascular tissue specifically designed for hypoxic stress, the researchers hypothesized that the charge they carry could directly protect the heart muscle. Many of these proteins are related to metabolic processes such as breathing, signaling, and homeostasis. In other words, many processes are related to the heart’s response to stress.

research results

Using exosomes as a potential therapeutic approach after myocardial infarction through extracellular vesicle function

The researchers found that the cardiomyocytes in tissues treated with vesicle function adapt better to stress conditions. This allowed them to maintain a higher workload. The team inflicted an artificial injury by restricting oxygen for three hours followed by 90 minutes of reoxygenation. They then measured the percentage of dead cells and the contractions of the tissue. The heart tissue treated in this way had half as many dead cells and a force of contraction four times higher than that of the untreated tissue after an injury. The research team also found that injured cardiomyocytes treated with extracellular vesicles had a number of proteins that were more similar to the uninjured compared to untreated cells. Surprisingly, the scientists also observed that cells treated in this way continued to contract even without oxygen.

Doctor writes down the values ​​for a patient with heart problems in the hospital

the Study results show, that vesicles supplement the injured cells with proteins and signaling molecules. This supports various metabolic processes and paves the way for new therapeutic approaches. Such cell therapies could be beneficial if the traditional model of a molecule does not cure heart disease. Thus, in the future, medicine will be able to use synthetic exosomes, which are more efficient and accessible, in therapeutic ways.