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Можете ли вы иметь 3 кредита на день зарплаты одновременно?

Могу ли я получить несколько займов?

Распространенный вопрос, который задают все, кто борется с долгом по кредиту, – “Могу ли я получить еще деньги до зарплаты, если у меня уже есть один??” Короткий ответ таков да, обычно вы можете получить еще один кредит. Однако, скорее всего, это будут кредиты не от одного и того же кредитора, а условия будут еще хуже, чем у вашего первоначального кредита.

Могу ли я получить 3 кредита одновременно?

В большинстве случаев вы можете одновременно взять 1-3 личных кредита у одного и того же кредитора, в зависимости от кредитора. Но не существует ограничений на количество денег на карту срочно, которые вы можете получить одновременно у нескольких кредиторов.

Не дают кредит где взять денег?

Если говорить конкретно о персональных кредитах, то нет никаких правил, запрещающих вам иметь более одного кредита. Вопрос о том, можете ли вы иметь несколько кредитов, решается каждым кредитором. Некоторые ограничивают количество кредитов, которые вы можете иметь, в то время как другие больше сосредоточены на общей сумме вашего долга.

Сколько займов на выплату заработной платы вы можете иметь открытыми одновременно?

один платный кредит В штатах Флорида, Огайо и Калифорния разрешается иметь только один открытый кредит на выплату зарплаты за один раз.

Можете ли вы взять 2 кредита на день зарплаты одновременно?

Если у вас уже есть один кредит, вы можете получить столько кредитов, сколько захотите если очень срочно нужны деньги в долг очень плохая кредитная история. Однако, практически, вы не сможете получить более 2-3 кредитов наличными или зарплатных кредитов одновременно, поскольку ограничения становятся тем жестче, чем больше у вас кредитов.

Сколько кредитов слишком много?

Многие финансовые консультанты говорят, что DTI больше 35% означает, что у вас слишком много долгов.

Как долго вы должны ждать между подачей заявки на кредит?

Даже если вы думаете, что вам могут одобрить кредит тенго кз, подождите не менее шести месяцев между заявками, чтобы убедиться, что вы не попадете в неприятности снова.

Можно ли взять кредит, если у вас уже есть кредит?

Да. Многие кредиторы турбомани кз разрешают брать несколько непогашенных личных кредитов. Вы можете взять персональный кредит в нескольких банках или онлайн-кредиторах, если вы соответствуете требованиям. Однако если у вас уже есть много непогашенных долгов, кредитор может не одобрить вам дополнительный кредит.

Могу ли я взять еще один персональный кредит, если у меня уже есть один кредит?

Да. Многие кредиторы разрешают иметь несколько займов онлайн. Вы можете взять персональный кредит в нескольких банках или онлайн-кредиторах, если вы соответствуете требованиям. Однако если у вас уже есть много непогашенных долгов, кредитор может не одобрить вам дополнительный кредит.

Что такое правило 28 36?

Критическое число для покупателей жилья Один из способов решить, какая часть вашего дохода должна идти на ипотеку, – это использовать правило 28/36. В соответствии с этим правилом, ваш ипотечный платеж не должен составлять более 28% от вашего ежемесячного дохода до вычета налогов и 36% от общей суммы долга. Это также известно как соотношение долга и дохода (DTI).

Что произойдет, если вы подадите заявку на 2 займ онлайн казахстан одновременно?

В то время как можно одновременно подать заявку на несколько кредитов от разных компаний, велика вероятность того, что это испортит вашу кредитную историю и шансы на получение кредита в будущем. Иногда возникает соблазн подать несколько заявок на получение кредита.

Могу ли я одновременно подать заявку на 2 персональных займа до зарплаты??

У некоторых кредиторов вы можете взять более одного личного кредита, а у разных кредиторов – несколько личных кредитов. Как правило, вероятность того, что кредитор не даст вам несколько кредитов, выше, чем закон. Кредиторы могут ограничить количество кредитов – или общую сумму денег – которые они вам дадут.

Через какое время после получения кредита вы можете получить еще один кредит?

Чтобы получить право на второй кредит, совокупная максимальная сумма непогашенного кредита не может превышать $50 000. Заемщики Prosper должны ждать минимум шесть месяцев после получения первого кредита creditplus kz в личный кабинет, прежде чем обращаться за вторым кредитом.

Отображаются ли кредиты до зарплаты в кредитной истории?

Payday loans как правило, не сообщается трем основным национальным компаниям, предоставляющим кредитные отчеты, поэтому они вряд ли повлияют на вашу кредитную историю. Большинство магазинных кредиторов не рассматривают традиционные кредитные отчеты или кредитные баллы при определении права на получение кредита.

Отражаются ли кредиты на кредитном досье?

Независимо от типа заявки на кредит, будь то ипотека, payday loan или кредитная карта, он остается в вашем кредитном отчете от одного до двух лет, в зависимости от кредитного справочного агентства. Когда бы вы ни обратились за займом, кредиторы будут проверять вашу кредитную историю, прежде чем предложить вам кредит.

Как долго вы должны ждать, прежде чем обратиться за другим кредитом?

Подождите 30-дневный цикл перед подачей заявки на кредит. Каждый раз, когда вы обращаетесь за новым кредитом, эта кредитная заявка появляется как запрос в вашем кредитном отчете, что может снизить вашу кредитную оценку. Не подавайте заявку на кредит и не получайте отказ.

Что такое бюджетное правило 50 30 20?

Сенатор Элизабет Уоррен популяризировала так называемый “Бюджетное правило 50/20/30” (иногда обозначается “50-30-20”) в своей книге All Your Worth: The Ultimate Lifetime Money Plan. Основное правило заключается в следующем разделите доход после уплаты налогов и распределите его на расходы: 50% на нужды, 30% на желания, а 20% отложите на сбережения.

Сколько я должен потратить на дом, если я зарабатываю $100 тыс?

Это было основным эмпирическим правилом в течение многих лет. Просто возьмите свой валовой доход и умножьте его на 2.5 или 3, чтобы получить максимальную стоимость дома, который вы можете себе позволить. Для человека, зарабатывающего $100 000 в год, максимальная цена покупки нового дома должна составлять примерно от $250 000 до $300 000.

Сколько кредитов я могу получить?

Обычно вы можете получить кредит на покупку жилья, который в 60 раз больше вашей зарплаты. Однако кредиторы обычно не учитывают вашу зарплату на руки при определении суммы кредита….Какую сумму кредита на покупку жилья я могу получить на свою зарплату?

Чистый ежемесячный доход Сумма домашнего кредита
Rs. 25,000 Rs. 20,85,328
Rs. 30,000 Rs. 25,02,394
Рупий. 35,000 Rs. 29,19,460
Rs. 40,000 Rs. 33,36,525

Может ли кредит, взятый в день зарплаты, увеличить кредит?

Даже если вы вовремя вносите все платежи, кредиты до зарплаты не могут повысить вашу кредитную историю потому что кредиторы не сообщают о вашей истории платежей в кредитные бюро.

Как долго платежные кредиты остаются в системе?

Трудности с обеспечением будущего финансирования: Поскольку невыплаченный кредит может остаться в вашей кредитной истории на протяжении всего времени до семи лет, в дальнейшем у вас могут возникнуть трудности с получением одобрения на другие кредиты.

Сколько сбережений должно быть у меня в 40 лет?

Быстрый ответ: Общее эмпирическое правило – к 30 годам накопить сумму, в один раз превышающую ваш годовой доход, три раза на 40, и так далее.

Что такое правило 2410?

Для медианного дохода семьи, составляющего около $60 000, правило 20/4/10 предполагает, что тратить на автомобиль не более $6 000 в год – это $500 в месяц. При первоначальном взносе в размере $5 000, как предлагает 20/4/10, покупатель с финансированием под 6 процентов может позволить себе автомобиль стоимостью $26 290.

Сколько стоит 100 тысяч долларов в год в час?

$51.28 Если вы зарабатываете $100 000 в год, ваша почасовая зарплата составит $51.28. Этот результат получается путем умножения вашей базовой зарплаты на количество часов, недель и месяцев, отработанных вами за год, при условии, что вы работаете 37.5 часов в неделю.

Сколько жилья я могу себе позволить, если я зарабатываю 2500 в месяц?

Например, если вы планируете ежемесячный платеж за жилье в размере 2500 долларов США, при этом два процента в год уходят на налоги и страхование, а текущая ставка по 30-летней ипотеке составляет 4%, то математика “в обратном порядке” показывает, что сумма кредита должна составлять максимальная цена покупки жилья – $385 000.

Какова максимальная сумма кредита, которую можно взять?

Максимальная сумма кредита описывает общая сумма, которую человек может взять в кредит по кредитной линии, кредитной карте, персональному кредиту или ипотеке. При определении максимальной суммы кредита кредиторы учитывают соотношение долга к доходу, кредитный балл, кредитную историю и финансовый профиль.

Какую сумму кредита я могу получить, если моя зарплата составляет 17000?

Фуллертон Индия персональный кредит правомочность 2022

Критерии приемлемости Зарплатные Самозанятые профессионалы
Минимальный доход ₹ 17 000 в месяц ₹ 2 лакха валовой годовой выручки
Максимальная сумма кредита ₹ 50,000 – ₹ 25 Lakh ₹ 1.50 лакхов – ₹ 20 лакхов
Опыт работы 1 – 12 месяцев 36 месяцев –
Срок кредитования 12 – 48 месяцев 12 месяцев – 48 месяцев

Может ли кредит испортить мой кредит?

О кредитах, выданных в день зарплаты, обычно не сообщается трем основным национальным компаниям, предоставляющим кредитные отчеты, поэтому они вряд ли повлияют на ваш кредитный рейтинг.

Могут ли платные кредиты улучшить вашу кредитоспособность?

Не способствуют росту кредитоспособности Но кредиторы обычно не сообщают о вашей истории платежей в кредитные бюро, что означает, что кредит не поможет вам создать кредит.

Могу ли я выйти на пенсию в 60 лет с 500 тыс?

Короткий ответ – даДля некоторых пенсионеров достаточно $500 000. Вопрос в том, как это будет работать. При наличии такого источника дохода, как Social Security, относительно низких расходах и немного удачи это вполне реально.

Сколько денег мне нужно для выхода на пенсию в 65 лет?

Эксперты по выходу на пенсию предлагают различные правила относительно того, сколько вам нужно откладывать: где-то около $1 млн, 80% – 90% от вашего годового дохода до выхода на пенсию, в 12 раз больше вашей зарплаты до выхода на пенсию.

Что означает правило 20 4 10?

Вы можете внести первоначальный взнос в размере 20% или более при покупке автомобиля. Вы можете взять автокредит сроком на четыре года или менее. Вы можете сделать так, чтобы ваши общие транспортные расходы – не только автокредит – составляли менее 10% от вашего ежемесячного дохода.

Сколько денег зарабатывает миллионер в день?

Его расчеты показывают, что если вы экономите и инвестируете 30 долларов в день, Зарабатывая 7% прибыли, вы можете стать миллионером через 30 лет.

Сколько составляет $80000 в год в час?

$41.03 Если вы зарабатываете $80 000 в год, ваша почасовая зарплата составит $41.03. Этот результат получается путем умножения вашей базовой зарплаты на количество часов, недель и месяцев, которые вы работаете в году, при условии, что вы работаете 37.5 часов в неделю.

Могу ли я купить дом, зарабатывая 40 тысяч в год?

Хотя покупателям, возможно, все еще придется выплачивать долги, копить деньги и претендовать на получение ипотечного кредита, в конечном счете, это то, что Покупка дома на зарплату среднего класса все еще возможна – в некоторых местах. Ниже представлены 15 городов, где можно стать домовладельцем, зарабатывая 40 000 долларов в год или меньше.

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New HIV drug with extended effect in the test phase

A single injection of the experimental drug lenacapavir emerged as a potential new HIV drug. It has been shown to lower the levels of HIV in the blood in a small group of people. The active ingredient was also able to maintain active blood levels for more than six months. All of this increases the chances that one day there will be an effective treatment for AIDS that only needs to be done twice a year.

Good prospects for new HIV drug

prevention prep therapy long-acting new hiv drug

Current treatment regimens use combinations of oral drugs that medical professionals and patients often consider "Cocktails" generally work quite well. This is shared by the co-author of the study, Dr. Martin Rhee, director of clinical research at the pharmaceutical company developing lenacapavir. However, those treated often claim that taking daily pills can be a burden over time. So the hope is that a longer-acting new HIV drug could free people from daily pills. In addition, longer-acting drugs could potentially provide an easier way to prevent AIDS in high-risk people. Currently, this is done with a daily therapy known as PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis).

patient gets an injection in the upper arm

However, much research remains to be done. The new study offers proof of the principle that a dosing interval of six months is possible. The researchers found that lenacapavir seemed safe in 40 healthy people. In addition, it was able to remain active in the body for more than six months. And in 32 people with previously untreated HIV, a single injection reduced the levels of the virus in the blood within nine days. The catch is that HIV isn’t treated with just one drug. In order to suppress the virus permanently and to limit the probability, such a new HIV drug would have to be effective against the resistant viruses. So for a twice-a-year regimen to become a reality, developers would have to be able to pair two long-acting drugs.

Therapeutic Perspectives

Researcher examines blood samples from HIV patient in laboratory

The researchers are studying a combination of two drugs they administered monthly – cabotegravir and rilpivirine. The hope is to maintain HIV suppression in patients who have brought the virus to very low levels with standard oral medications. The researchers are now also testing cabotegravir for HIV prevention in high-risk people. In addition, they give injections of the active ingredient every two months in these studies. While infrequent doses are convenient and easier to comply with, there are safety issues. For example, if the medicine has side effects, it means that the sick will still have to take it for six months?

potential new hiv drug vaccination in development

To avoid this, the researchers in this study carried out an introductory phase. Patients take oral versions of the long-acting drugs first to make sure they can tolerate them. Another concern is what might happen if patients miss or delay an injection. If the levels of the drug in the body decrease, the virus could return and possibly develop resistance to the drug. Rhee agrees that this is an issue that will affect all HIV drugs in development. Still, the progress towards new options is encouraging. People living with HIV should know that scientists are still working on new therapies, including ways to cure the disease.

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Exercise during pregnancy could improve breast milk

Researchers claim that exercise during pregnancy creates a compound that can increase the quality of breast milk. In addition, it can lower a child’s lifelong risk of developing heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. A new study suggests that exercising more can help pregnant women make their breast milk more nutritious. The latest animal studies have shown that mothers who exercise before and during pregnancy pass on protective measures against impaired glucose metabolism, decreased cardiovascular function and obesity.

Do more exercise during pregnancy

Exercise during pregnancy or yoga exercises for healthier breast milk production

However, the medical community is still unsure of the exact compound providing the benefits. The researchers believe that oligosaccharide 3′-sialyllactose (known as 3′-SL or 3’SL), a compound found in breast milk, protects infants. Together with other milk oligosaccharides, 3’SL is likely only synthesized in the mammary gland and only during breastfeeding. The study published in Nature Metabolism highlights research on mice and humans. The research team studied mice that were born to sedentary mothers.

pregnant woman at the doctor with vaccine against diseases

The researchers then fed them milk from female mice that were active during their pregnancy. They observed the mice for a year after they were breastfeeding. Just supplementing 3’SL during breastfeeding improved glucose metabolism, reduced fat mass and body weight in males, and preserved cardiac function in female offspring. In addition, the researchers observed that the mice fed 3’SL and fed high-fat diets while they were breastfeeding were protected from the harmful effects of a high-fat diet.

Research on human breast milk

baby little child in chair holding bottle with breast milk

In humans, the team looked at around 150 pregnant and postpartum women who wore activity trackers. They discovered that the subjects who took more steps per day had higher amounts of 3’SL. Higher 3’SL scores were not necessarily related to exercise intensity. Therefore, even moderate exercise such as a daily walk is enough to reap the benefits. Researchers aren’t sure if postpartum exercise can maintain 3’SL levels or how much exercise is required to keep levels high enough to help infants. In the future, they hope to determine the mechanism by which 3’SL improves metabolic health and cardiac function in offspring and how exercise increases 3’SL in milk.

exercise in the gym during pregnancy and prevent heart disease and diabetes

Exercise has been shown to improve symptoms of depression and anxiety. New mothers are prone to these health conditions. However, this does not mean that every new mom should exercise during pregnancy. This study does not address the idea of ​​overexertion or the potential negative effects a baby-mother dyad can have if the mother is overwhelmed, either physically or psychologically. There are documented benefits in women who are unable to exercise for other ways to support their child’s microbiome. The study authors however, would like to see more factors in future research related to exercise and baby food. These would be, for example, the diet of the pregnant mother, as well as her sleep quality and her mental state.

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Sedentary Work – Desk jobs improve brain function

A desk job or a sedentary job could lower your risk of cognitive decline. Experts have long warned of the potential dangers of a static lifestyle. Many studies suggest that physical inactivity increases the risk of health problems. However, the relationship between physical activity and maintaining cognitive health was less clear. A new study from the University of Cambridge in the UK further underscores this uncertainty.

Sedentary work could improve cognitive skills?

asian man in front of computer while thinking shown with active brain function

Research has found that people with desk jobs are far less likely to experience cognitive decline than those with physically active jobs. The often used mantra that "What is good for the heart is good for the brain" makes perfect sense. With a large group of volunteers, the study authors were able to examine the relationship between different types of physical activity in diverse settings. The study is based on data from a long-term project with around 30,000 participants aged 40 to 79 years. The aim is to investigate connections between daily activities, diet and cancer. Over an average of 12 years, investigators rated participants’ perceptions, including attention, memory, and visual processing speed. The researchers also conducted a reading ability test, which took a rough measure of each individual’s IQ.

brainstorming improve cognitive skills through sedentary work

The data collected included information on physical activity during work and leisure. Measurements of an individual’s physical activity in the Cambridge study combined the two. A total of 8,585 people served as a cohort for the new Cambridge study. The study reports that those with desk jobs are at lower risk of cognitive decline. In addition, people with lifelong careers at desks were most likely to be among the top 10 cognitive performers in the study. Conversely, people whose professions involve manual labor are almost three times as likely to develop poor awareness. However, it may be the job itself that provides such an advantage. Since desk jobs are usually more psychologically demanding than manual jobs, they offer a possible protection against cognitive decline.

Study results

senior researcher writes down study results in the laboratory

Analysis from the study shows that the relationship between physical activity and cognitive function is not that straightforward, however. While regular physical activity has significant benefits in protecting against many chronic diseases, other factors can affect poor exercise in the future. The researchers also looked at the potential impact of educational level on cognition, but found little evidence that it was relevant. People who do less active and sedentary jobs do better on cognitive tests, regardless of their education. The team also looked at the relationship between recreational physical activity and cognition. At least in part, they were unable to draw strong associations because such activities were confused with education, social class, and occupation. So the data show a difference in the relationship between inactivity and cognition during work and leisure. What exactly that is, however, remains unclear, especially given the lower level of leisure activities.

woman with coffee cup sitting in front of the laptop while surfing

According to the study results, People who have been physically active at work are likely to be less similarly active in their free time. More studies are needed, particularly on inequalities between socio-economic groups and the effects of lower education, poor quality work (lack of useful physical and mental stimulation), especially for manual labor, and the lack of opportunity and space to be physically active in leisure time. All of these are key factors that leave fewer opportunities to build cognitive reserves to protect against cognitive impairment and dementia later in life.

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Raw food nutrition – which foods are not suitable for this?

The raw food diet has become a real food trend. This consists of raw foods that people can better benefit from with all of the nutrients in them. Although this type of diet has certain contradictions in terms of health risks, more and more people are choosing it. However, there are some foods that you should never eat raw and here are some of them.

Unsuitable products for raw food nutrition

raw vegetables like carrots cauliflower and green beans vegan diet

Some natural products that you shouldn’t eat raw are vegetables like potatoes, eggplant, and kidney beans. So, with regard to potatoes, these are dangerous to health because they contain solanine. In high doses, this substance becomes toxic and can lead to food poisoning. Symptoms include headache, abdominal pain, fever, and vomiting and diarrhea. Eggplants are actually a low-calorie, antioxidant vegetable and can neutralize free radicals.

Raw eggplants and other vegetables in the baking tray ready for baking

This will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. However, the eggplants also contain solanine, which means that you should always consume them cooked. Real health allies, red beans are high in protein, fiber, and antioxidants. However, if you consume these raw, they become harmful to health due to phytohemagglutinin. This is a substance that becomes toxic in high doses and causes gastrointestinal problems.

Oyster mushrooms on baking paper are not suitable as raw food due to toxic substances

As a rule, all edible mushrooms are cooked to avoid possible poisoning. Mushrooms are the only exception. However, other species such as morel and all such varieties are poisonous if you want to add them to your raw food diet. This is due to a substance called hemolysin that is in it. The active ingredient is able to destroy red blood cells prematurely, which accordingly can lead to anemia. For example, chicken meat is rich in vitamins B3 and B5 and contributes to skin health and the proper functioning of the immune system.

combine uncooked chicken breast fillet with parsley and ginger unsuitable as a raw food diet

However, you should never eat this type of meat raw as it contains two dangerous bacteria: Campylobacter and Salmonelle, which fortunately are not very resistant to heat. Like chicken, pork contains the two bacteria mentioned above, which cause gastrointestinal upset and food poisoning. In addition, there is trichinosis: a disease that is transmitted to humans from contaminated meat if it is poorly cooked.

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Eurovision 2020 – Is Hungary withdrawing from the competition as a participant because of homosexuality in the program?

Hungary is unlikely to participate in the Eurovision 2020 singing competition next year. According to speculation, those responsible made the decision because the competition has become “too gay” for the country’s right-wing extremist government and public media chiefs. Although no official reason has been given for the withdrawal, the withdrawal is due to an increase in homophobic rhetoric in Hungary. There the Prime Minister, Viktor Orbán, opposes migration and calls one "Family first" -Politics into life. This aims to support traditional families and promote the birth rate.

Resignation from Eurovision 2020

victor orban at a press conference in budapest

In recent years, the Hungarian state public broadcaster MTVA has organized its own singing competition. The winner represented Hungary at the Eurovision (ESC). However, the broadcaster announced last month that the upcoming competition would not serve as a decision. Instead, the show will focus more on the Hungarian hit of the year.

The announcement was taken as a sign that Hungary is likely to leave Eurovision 2020. This decision was almost confirmed with the publication of the list of competing countries last week. “I wasn’t surprised. It comes from MTVA’s organizational culture, ”the source told the newspaper. She added that positive reporting on rights within the organization is not recommended.

Orbán’s spokesman, Zoltán Kovács, described the index.hu story on Twitter as “fake news” but gave no other reason for Hungary’s non-participation. In an email to the Guardian, MTVA said, “Instead of participating in the Eurovision 2020 Song Contest, we will directly support the valuable productions created by the talents of Hungarian pop music.” In previous years, the winner of such a series was "The song" Hungary’s ESC. The program will continue this year, but the award will be a chance to appear in various local media and at festivals.

No comment from the broadcaster MTVA

performance singers group eurovision 2020 participation

Orbán, however, stayed away from homophobic rhetoric. However, he has repeatedly emphasized that marriage is only possible between a man and a woman. But in the last few months homophobia has increased within the prime minister’s inner circle.

An Orbán Fidesz MP called for a boycott of Coca Cola after the brand launched an advertising campaign featuring photos of a gay couple. László Kövér, the spokesman for the Hungarian parliament, also compared advocates of equality and adoption with pedophiles.

Kövér contrasted those who wanted same-sex adoption rights with an alleged “normal homosexual” who understood his lower status in the world. An opposition MP asked a government minister what the reason for the withdrawal of Eurovision 2020 was. He was told that it was a public media decision over which the government had no control. However, television programs close to the government have expressly made the connection.

conchita wurst as the winner of the eurovision song contest

"I welcome the decision, also from a psychological point of view, that Hungary will not take part in the homosexual flotilla to which this international singing competition has been reduced", said András Bencsik, editor of a government-affiliated magazine and regular television commentator. "Many young people thought this was something for the under 18s, but at this event the destruction of public taste takes place with screaming transvestites and bearded women."

The scandal is reminiscent of the opposition to ESC in Russia. There a homophobic MP called for the country to resign in 2014. He said that the attendance would be "would contradict the path of cultural and moral renewal Russia is on today". The European Broadcasting Union, which hosts the competition, said: “It is not uncommon for EBU members to take breaks from participating in the Eurovision singing competition". She also pointed out that Hungary had been absent on previous occasions. However, the country has competed every year since 2011.

participants from iceland are waiting for the decision at eurovision with a colored flag

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Human papillomaviruses can bypass the immune system

Usually the immune system is armed with antibodies that protect against viruses, but human papillomaviruses can fool it. Researchers at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) examined the immune response to human papillomavirus (HPV) in mice and discovered a previously unknown mechanism. Through this, the pathogens can outsmart the immune system. At the beginning of the infection cycle, they produce a longer version of a protein that surrounds the viral genomes. Thus, the immune system produces antibodies against this protein, but they are not effective in fighting the pathogen.

How do human papillomaviruses work?

red blood cells attack human papillomaviruses as antibodies when infected

The human immune system has a variety of defense strategies to protect the body from pathogens. One of these involves the production of antibodies to fight viruses and bacteria. However, over time, these pathogens have developed sophisticated ways to escape the immune system. Some of these strategies are already known to the scientists. In the case of human papilloma viruses, however, they have so far only known such strategies in the case of innate, already existing immunity and not in the case of adaptive immunity. The latter only develops when pathogens enter the body and are linked to the production of antibodies. Frank Rösl and his colleagues at the DKFZ, under the supervision of Daniel Hasche, have now discovered a new mechanism by which cutaneous papilloma viruses (skin-specific) deceive the immune system.

computed tomography shows advanced squamous cell carcinoma in the lungs

Certain cutaneous HPVs, such as HPV5 and HPV8, occur as natural skin infections. They are not sexually transmitted, but rather passed on from the mother to the newborn. Therefore, family members are usually colonized with the same types of HPV. Infection usually goes unnoticed because the body can get over it. However, depending on the individual status of a person’s immune system, genetic makeup, age, and other external factors such as UV radiation, certain cutaneous HPV types can stimulate cell division in their host cells. This leads to changes in the skin and, in rare cases, the development of squamous cell carcinoma, also known as pale skin cancer. The scientists carried out their experiment on a specific mouse species. Like humans, this southern polyteat mouse can become infected with cutaneous papillomavirus shortly after birth. Then your immune system produces specific antibodies against the virus. In combination with UV radiation, infected animals then often develop squamous cell carcinoma.

research results

Doctor examines x-rays of patient with breast cancer

The animals’ immune system produces antibodies against the two viral proteins L1 and L2 that make up the virus particles, also known as capsids. These antibodies can prevent the viruses from entering the host cells and thus neutralize the virus. However, the experiments carried out by the scientists showed that the viruses also produce a longer version in addition to the normal L1 protein. The latter is not able to actually take part in the formation of the viral capsid. Instead, it acts as a kind of bait against which the immune system reacts and produces specific antibodies.

The scientists could in the study however, show that these antibodies are not effective at fighting human papillomaviruses. Instead of neutralizing the infectious pathogen by binding to L1, the antibodies only bind the protein used as bait. While the immune system is busy producing these non-neutralizing antibodies, the virus can continue to replicate and spread throughout the body. It will be a few more months before new neutralizing antibodies target the normal L1 protein and ultimately the infectious viruses themselves.

dermatologist sees a woman's birthmark as a risk for human papillomaviruses

In both rodents and humans, in almost all types of HPV that can cause cancer, the L1 gene is designed so that a longer version of the protein can be produced. This also applies to high-risk HPV types such as HPV16 and HPV18. It appears to be a common mechanism that allows viruses to replicate and spread efficiently in the early stages of infection. The fact that antibodies against human papillomavirus can be detected is therefore not necessarily associated with protection against infection. In the future, this must be taken into account when evaluating and interpreting epidemiological studies.

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More reparations for Poland? The Polish Prime Minister demands more compensation payments for the Second World War

Reparations Poland victims demands destruction

The Second World War may be a past for all other countries, but it is still a topical and sensitive issue for Germany and Poland. Right now, as the 80th anniversary of the start of the war is approaching, the Polish Prime Minister spoke up. He said that up to this point Poland had not received adequate compensation payments for the more than 6 million war victims and the destruction in Polish cities and villages.

More reparations for Poland: The Polish government is demanding more compensation payments

Reparations Poland demands billions World War II

The foreign minister of the neighboring country also spoke of discrimination. He explained that other countries with fewer victims and destruction received more money than Poland and gave France as an example. In view of the more than 6 million people who died (more than 20% of the population lost their lives in the military attacks), the level of Polish reparations is simply not fair. Now the Polish government wants to sit down and set a sum. During the planned visit of the German Federal President on September 1st, the Polish Prime Minister intends to raise the issue again.

The subject actually seemed to be closed for a long time. Poland officially waived compensation in the early 1950s. In the two plus four treaty signed in Moscow on September 12, 1990, no further reparations are foreseen. Ten years ago, however, the Polish government came back with requests. The Second World War and its aftermath still seem to be a strain on German-Polish relations. The question now arises as to what Poland would do if attempts at reconciliation failed during the September 1st commemoration. Foreign Minister Jacek Czaputowicz did not announce in his testimony whether he would also take legal action.

Reparations for Poland: Over 1000 Polish towns and villages were completely destroyed during World War II

During the German occupation between 1939 and 1945, more than 1000 Polish villages were razed to earth. At that time, the army not only destroyed numerous works of art, but also bombed the capital Warsaw so heavily at the end of the war that it was almost completely in ruins. Many residents were killed in these attacks. Numerous cultural monuments, museums, churches and hospitals were also completely destroyed. After the end of the war, the country was in an extremely bad economic situation.

In addition, 6 of the 7 extermination camps were set up in Poland, in which almost the entire Jewish population of the country was killed.

Reparations for Poland: Greece also has similar requirements for Germany

Reparations Germany Russia pays Soviet Union World War II

The new requirements come four months after the Greek parliament demanded around 290 billion euros from Germany. The federal government has resolutely rejected these requirements. In Greece, the politicians then did not agree on what to do. The opposition accused the Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras of wanting to win votes for the upcoming elections for the European Parliament in October through the demands.

In 2015, Russia also demanded three to four billion euros in compensation for the approximately 27 million war victims in the Soviet Union. The Russian population suffered greatly from the aftermath of the Second World War. Some experts from Russia even claimed that Russia’s population would have almost doubled had it not been for the war. Instead, there was poverty and famine in many Russian cities, especially those that were partially or completely destroyed.

Germany has already paid over 70 billion euros in reparations

Reparations Poland Destructions Second World War

After the end of the Second World War, the Federal Republic of Germany paid the affected states over 70 billion euros. It is not only about payments directly to other governments, but also about payments to private individuals, for example family members of victims of the Second World War. In Italy, for example, over 120 people were shot dead by German soldiers in a village. The relatives of the victims had sued the Federal Republic in the European court for compensation money, and it awarded them compensation of over 1.5 million euros.

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